Healthcare innovation

Development and Validation of a Questionnaire Assessing…

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Development and Validation of a Questionnaire Assessing…


Introduction Healthcare workers have been suffering from workplace violence in alarming numbers, showing the importance of its prevention initiative. This study aims to develop and validate a new questionnaire to assess the perception and practice scores of workplace violence prevention among employers at healthcare facilities. Methods Existing literature has been reviewed to establish the domains and refine the items. The first drafted domain was the perception constructed by six components and 59 items. The second drafted domain was practice, consisting of six components and 41 items. Content validation was measured by a panel of experts using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI). Then, face validation analysis was carried out among 10 healthcare employers and presented as the item-level face validity index (I-FVI). Lastly, 222 participants were recruited to determine the validity and reliability of the questionnaire by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and internal consistency reliability. Results Following content validation, two items in the practice domain were removed because of the I-CVI below 0.78. The I-CVI values of the remaining items for both domains were above 0.78, indicating good relevancy of 59 items to assess the perception and 39 items to evaluate the practice domains. The I-FVI values for both domains were above 0.80, suggesting that the participants easily understood the questionnaire. Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant for both domains (p<0.001). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.879 for the perception domain and 0.941 for the practice domain. All items load above 0.6 in their respective factor. In addition, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of reliability test ranged from 0.71 to 0.92 and from 0.82 to 0.97 for the perception and practice domains, respectively. The final revised questionnaire consisted of nine components (35 items) for perception and four components (27 items) for practice. Conclusion The newly developed set of questionnaires is a valid and reliable tool to assess the perception and practice of workplace violence prevention among employers at healthcare facilities.

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