Healthcare innovation

Operative and Pathological Factors in Right-Sided Colon…

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Operative and Pathological Factors in Right-Sided Colon…


Introduction: Though the tumour-node-metastasis staging classification is the standard approach to risk stratification in patients with colorectal cancer, several other important variables including the presence of extramural venous invasion (EMVI), the tumour mismatch repair status, as well as surgical technique and its influence on lymph node yield all have an impact on long-term survival. This study aims to review both the impact of the type of operation on lymph node yield: complete mesocolic excision (CME) versus right hemicolectomy, and the impact of EMVI and microsatellite instability in predicting overall survival in patients undergoing a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer. Methods: Data of all patients who underwent an elective or emergency right hemicolectomy with curative intent for colon cancer between January 2013 and June 2022 (inclusive) was collected for this single-centre retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 28, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) software, and the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test was used to compare survival distribution between different groups. Results: A total of 421 patients underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer with curative intent during the study period. EMVI was present in 173 (41%) tumours. Survival analysis showed significantly reduced cancer-related survival in patients with EMVI-positive tumours (p < 0.001), with five-year survival rates of 70% in EMVI-positive groups versus 96% in EMVI-negative groups. Subgroup analysis showed a significant difference in survival between node-positive and node-negative tumours in cancers found to have EMVI (p < 0.001). Mean lymph node yield was significantly higher in the CME group versus the standard right hemicolectomy group (p < 0.001). We found no significant difference in survival between patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumours and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours (p = 0.432). Conclusion: Consideration of tumour biology and adopting the optimum surgical technique are factors that may influence long-term survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Extramural venous invasion is an important prognostic indicator of adverse outcomes in patients with right-sided colon cancer. Our study demonstrates a reduction in survival in patients with EMVI-positive tumours when undertaking subgroup analysis by the presence or absence of nodal disease. Further research needs to be undertaken to compare the relative efficacy of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy in right-sided cancers known to be EMVI-positive as some patients will fail to have adjuvant chemotherapy due to postoperative complications, thereby delaying recovery and missing the optimum window for treatment.

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